Atopic dermatitis is increased following vaccination for measles, mumps and rubella or measles infection
The prevalence of atopic dermatitis increased markedly in the period 1960s to the 1990s. Earlier findings indicate that infections acquired in early life enhance or suppress the expression of atopic disease as a result of a change in immune reactivity. Our objectives were to examine the association between measles, mumps and rubella vaccination, measles infection and the risk of atopic dermatitis. A random sample of 9,744 children were followed up from birth to 3-15 years. Their parents responded to a questionnaire including highly structured questions on atopic dermatitis, measles, mumps and rubella vaccination and measles infection. Information on parental educational level was obtained from Statistics Denmark. The cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis at age 14 was 19.7%. The confounder adjusted incidence ratio of atopic dermatitis among measles, mumps and rubella vaccinated children versus children not subjected to measles, mumps and rubella vaccination and measles infection was 1.86 (95% CI 1.25-2.79); the incidence ratio for measles-infected children was similar. The incidence of atopic dermatitis increased after measles, mumps and rubella vaccination and measles infection, which is surprising in view of the hygiene hypothesis. We suggest further study of the possible short-term and long-term effects of virus and bacteria on the immune responses and expression of atopic disease.
Source: Acta Derm Venereol. 2003;83(6):445-50.
Haemophilus influenzae type b combination vaccines and atopic disorders: a prospective cohort study.
Epidemiologic evidence for an association between vaccinations and atopy development is inconsistent. We evaluated the influence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) combination vaccines in 6-month-old infants on the prevalence of atopic disorders in 18-month-old children.
We used multistage, stratified systematic sampling to recruit 24,200 mother-newborn pairs from the Taiwan national birth registration in 2005. Vaccination status was ascertained through official vaccine cards, while risk factors for atopic disorders were gathered by questionnaires at 6 months of age. Information about development of atopic dermatitis (AD) and recurrent wheezing was collected at 18 months of age. The relationship between atopic disorders and Hib combination vaccines, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-Hib and oral poliomyelitis vaccines (DPT-Hib&OPV) and DPT-Hib-inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines (DPT-Hib-IPV), were estimated by multiple logistic regression.
A total of 19,968 children completed the follow-up and participated in the study. AD was noted in 1584 (7.9%) infants while recurrent wheezing was found in 1220 (6.1%) infants. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% CI) for the development of AD in the DPT-Hib&OPV and DPT-Hib-IPV vaccination groups were given as 1.38 (1.15-1.65) and 1.49 (1.29-1.72), compared to those without Hib vaccination (DTP&OPV vaccination). However, the association between DPT-Hib&OPV and DPT-Hib-IPV vaccinations and recurrent wheezing failed to reach statistical significance.
There is a potential risk for AD after receiving Hib combination vaccines. Hib vaccination is important to the public health, and therefore the observation requires further investigations.
Source: J Formos Med Assoc. 2012 Dec;111(12):711-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jfma.2011.09.022. Epub 2012 Apr 13.
Vaccination and Health Outcomes: A Survey of 6- to 12-year-old Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Children based on Mothers’ Reports
Background: Vaccinations have prevented millions of infectious illnesses, hospitalizations and deaths among US children. Yet the long-term health outcomes of the routine vaccination program remain unknown. Studies have been recommended by the Institute of Medicine to address this question.
Specific Aims: To compare vaccinated and unvaccinated children on a broad range of health outcomes, and to determine whether an association found between vaccination and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD), if any, remains significant after adjustment for other measured factors.
Design: A cross-sectional survey of mothers of children educated at home.
Methods: Homeschool organizations in four states (Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Oregon) were asked to forward an email to their members, requesting mothers to complete an anonymous online questionnaire on the vaccination status and health outcomes of their biological children ages 6 to 12.
Results: A total of 415 mothers provided data on 666 children, of which 261 (39%) were unvaccinated. Vaccinated children were significantly less likely than the unvaccinated to have been diagnosed with chickenpox and pertussis, but significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with pneumonia, otitis media, allergies and NDDs (defined as Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and/or a learning disability). After adjustment, the factors that remained significantly associated with NDD were vaccination (OR 3.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.8), male gender (OR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.3), and preterm birth (OR 5.0, 95% CI: 2.3, 11.6). In a final adjusted model, vaccination but not preterm birth remained associated with NDD, while the interaction of preterm birth and vaccination was associated with a 6.6-fold increased odds of NDD (95% CI: 2.8, 15.5).
Conclusions: In this study based on mothers’ reports, the vaccinated had a higher rate of allergies and NDD than the unvaccinated. Vaccination, but not preterm birth, remained significantly associated with NDD after controlling for other factors. However, preterm birth combined with vaccination was associated with an apparent synergistic increase in the odds of NDD. Further research involving larger, independent samples is needed to verify and understand these unexpected findings in order to optimize the impact of vaccines on children’s health.
Source: Front. Public Health | doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2016.00270.