Following the introduction of a heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the Netherlands in 2006, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) declined significantly. Since then a shift towards non-vaccine serotype IPD has been noted.
We present the case of multidrug resistant non-vaccine serotype 19A pneumococcal meningitis in a 5-month-old boy. He was admitted to our Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) with seizures and septic shock. A barbiturate-induced coma was eventually required to control the seizures; shock was combated with intravenous fluids and inotropes. He received a 6-week course of ceftriaxone and vancomycin. At follow-up, one year after discharge, he had unilateral deafness and minor developmental delay.
Worldwide, pneumococcal serotype 19A is now the most common cause of IPD in children, with an increasing incidence of multidrug resistant strains. This trend has not yet been observed in the Netherlands. This case demonstrates that even following the introduction of PCV7 pneumococcal meningitis can still occur. Prompt recognition of the symptoms is still essential.
Source: Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2012;156(1):A3806.